The United Nations is 70: “Stronger UN. Better World.”*
United Nations Day is celebrated each year on 24 October … In 2015 UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon stated …“The 70th anniversary of the United Nations is an opportunity to reflect - to look back on the UN’s history and take stock of its enduring achievements. It is also an opportunity to spotlight where the UN - and the international community as a whole - needs to redouble its efforts to meet current and future challenges across the three pillars of its work: peace and security, development and human rights.”
The United Nations
The name “United Nations”, coined by the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of l January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.
States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters. The International Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, and the Universal Postal Union was established in 1874. Both are now United Nations Specialized Agencies.
In 1899 the International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate instruments for settling crises peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare. It adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and established the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which began work in 1902.
The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in similar circumstances during the First World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles “to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security.” The International Labour Organization was also created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League. The League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War.
In 1945 representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.
The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States and by a majority of other signatories.
Ita Marguet, November 2015
Note: *Acknowledgement is given to The Church of Scotland Geneva, Newsletter Harvest 2015, (p.6). It follows published texts on the United Nations including League of Nations: Concept and Legacy, UN: Peacekeeping and Peacekeepers, and work of the Specialized Agencies. Ita Marguet.